Ciencias de la educacin

Artculo de investigacin

 

The teaching-learning process is contextualized, flexible and adapted to the educational needs of the young learner students

 

El proceso de enseanza-aprendizaje es contextualizado, flexible y adaptado a las necesidades educativas de los jvenes estudiantes

 

O processo de ensino-aprendizagem contextualizado, flexvel e adaptado s necessidades educacionais dos alunos jovens

 

 

Adriana Elizabeth Cango-Patio I

adrianacango@unl.edu.ec

https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3073-477X

 

Nancy Beatriz Jimnez-Bermeo II

nancyjimenez1972@hotmail.com

https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5019-2459

 

Correspondencia: adrianacango@unl.edu.ec

 

*Recibido: 20 de enero de 2021 *Aceptado: 04 de febrero de 2021 * Publicado: 25 de febrero del 2021

 

       I.            Diploma Superior las Nuevas Tecnologas de la Informacin y Comunicacin y su Aplicacin en la Prctica Docente Ecuatoriana, Magster en Educacin y Desarrollo Social, Licenciada en Ciencias de la Educacin en la Especialidad de Idioma Ingls, Profesora de Segunda Educacin Especializacin Idioma Ingls, Docente en la Universidad Nacional de Loja, Loja, Ecuador.

    II.            Master Universitario en Formacin del Profesorado en Educacin Secundaria de Ecuador en la Especialidad en Orientacin Educativa, Doctora en Psicologa Infantil y Educacin Parvularia, Licenciada en Ciencias de la Educacin en la Especialidad de Psicologa infantil y Educacin Parvularia, Docente en Ciencias Educacin en la Especialidad de Psicologa Infantil y Educacin Parvularia, Investigador Independiente, Ecuador.

 

Abstract

The objective of the following bibliographic research was to explain how the teaching-learning process is contextualized, flexible and adapted to the educational needs of the young learner students, and to demonstrate the impact of the Mime Game as a learning technique of the communicative approach in the students vocabulary acquisition. The units of analysis were 20 research articles carried out different countries, where the English language is taught as a foreign language. The method applied was the hermeneutic method which allowed the pre-service teachers to understand, analyze and interpret the effect of communicative activities (mime game) on the teaching-learning process of young learners. Thus, an annotated bibliography matrix was made as a data collection instrument, which included themes, authors, year, countries, objectives, research designs and main findings. The results showed that the application of the Communicative approach provides meaningful activities for students to use the language. Specially, for learning vocabulary, association and gestures activities are recommended for young learners, so they might learn easier and less stressful, particularly, mime game is suggested, as it enhances students to take risks, make mistakes, work as a team and keep improving within less threatening situations.

Keywords: Communicative approach; young learners; mime game; vocabulary mastery; learning.

 

Resumen

El objetivo de la siguiente investigacin bibliogrfica fue explicar cmo el proceso de enseanza-aprendizaje es contextualizado, flexible y adaptado a las necesidades educativas de los estudiantes de edades tempranas, adems de demostrar el impacto del Mime Game como tcnica de aprendizaje del enfoque comunicativo en el aprendizaje del vocabulario. Las unidades de anlisis fueron 20 artculos investigativos llevados a cabo en diferentes pases donde el idioma ingls es enseado como lengua extranjera. El uso de mtodo hermenutico permiti a los profesores en pre servicio, entender, analizar e interpretar el efecto de las actividades comunicativas (mime game) sobre el proceso de enseanza-aprendizaje que experimentan los nios. Por ello, se cre una matriz bibliografa comentada como medio de recoleccin de datos, est incluy ttulo, autores, ao, pas, objetivos, diseos de investigacin y principales resultados de las investigaciones seleccionadas. Los resultados mostraron que la aplicacin de un enfoque comunicativo proporcion a los estudiantes actividades significativas para el uso de la lengua extranjera. Especialmente, para el aprendizaje de vocabulario, actividades de asociacin y gestos son recomendadas para nios de edades tempranas, de esa manera ellos pueden aprender ms fcil y menos estresante, el Mime Game es sugerido de manera particular, pues este impulsa a los nios a tomar riesgos, cometer errores, trabajar en equipo y seguir mejorando en ambientes ms relajados.

Palabras clave: Enfoque comunicativo; nios en edades tempranas; juego de mmica; dominio del vocabulario; aprendizaje

 

Resumo

O objetivo da seguinte pesquisa bibliogrfica foi explicar como o processo de ensino-aprendizagem contextualizado, flexvel e adaptado s necessidades educacionais dos alunos da primeira infncia, alm de demonstrar o impacto do Jogo Mime como tcnica de aprendizagem da abordagem comunicativa na aprendizagem de vocabulrio. As unidades de anlise foram 20 artigos de pesquisa realizados em diferentes pases onde a lngua inglesa ensinada como lngua estrangeira. A utilizao do mtodo hermenutico permitiu aos professores em formao compreender, analisar e interpretar o efeito das atividades comunicativas (jogo de mmica) no processo de ensino-aprendizagem que as crianas vivenciam. Para tanto, foi criada uma matriz bibliogrfica anotada como meio de coleta de dados, que incluiu ttulo, autores, ano, pas, objetivos, desenhos de pesquisa e principais resultados da pesquisa selecionada. Os resultados mostraram que a aplicao de uma abordagem comunicativa proporcionou aos alunos atividades significativas para o uso da lngua estrangeira. Principalmente, para aprendizagem de vocabulrio, atividades de associao e gestos so indicadas para crianas de tenra idade, para que aprendam mais fcil e menos estressante, o Jogo Mime sugerido de forma particular, pois incentiva a criana a correr riscos, errar, trabalhar como equipe e continuar melhorando em ambientes mais descontrados.

Palavras-chave: Abordagem comunicativa; crianas em idades precoces; Jogo de mmica; domnio do vocabulrio; Aprendendo.

 

Introduction

Teaching English as a foreign language is a very complex task, there are several debates about when people must start the process and what teachers should start with. Schumann in their Critical Period Hypothesis explains that in the case of language learning earlier is better, so starting at a young age is ideal. In the same way, Wilkins (1976) points out the fact that vocabulary is the basic knowledge for students to understand input and create output, therefore, it is the basic unit and first language system that students should learn.

In Ecuador, since the English learning became a mandatory subject, many approaches have been adapted for enhancing students language acquisition. A particular interest has been put in young learners and their communicative abilities. Thus, the English Curriculum for elemental level is focused on giving students the foundations for developing those skills in future levels. As a result, elemental level English textbook is centered on providing enough vocabulary or phrases so they might be used in meaningful communicative situations.

Based on the importance of vocabulary development, the communicative approach of the Ecuadorian curriculum and the advantage of learning English at a young age. This research aims to explain how the mime game as a technique of the communicative approach influences young learners vocabulary mastery. In order to achieve the main objective, the researchers plan to analyze the most suitable approach for teaching vocabulary to young learners. To support the use of the miming game as part of the communicative approach to improve young learners vocabulary mastery, and to describe the ideal development of the miming game for improving young learners vocabulary mastery.

Xia (2010) highlights that the key point that makes the communicative approach suitable for teaching vocabulary to young learners is its dynamism, this approach offers students joyful and meaningful learning opportunities, taking into account their interests. She concludes that the current systematic and isolated teaching of vocabulary makes students likely to keep vocabulary just for a few moments. While mime strategy from Communicative approach provides students a free stress - environment, purposeful and funny activities that catch students attention and interest for learning English and become lifelong learners.

Therefore, the present study is pertinent, because it is a proposal that can help in-service and pre-service English teachers to prepare their future lesson plans to develop vocabulary knowledge in young learners. Moreover, it can help EFL educators to solve vocabulary problems, since the study is going to introduce the use of miming game to create meaningful learning opportunities in order to engage students into the English learning process. It means, teachers are going to be able to gather some theoretical elements in order to apply miming game as a solution to vocabulary problems.

Additionally, for this bibliographic research the hermeneutic method was used with a descriptive focus. First, through analytic reading the researchers acquire understanding of relevant publications of the main topic then, the elaboration of a bibliography matrix was made in order to classify all the pertinent information. Third, a critical assessment of literature review was conducted to examine the weaknesses and strengths of each study and, finally, based on the interpretation done in the papers (action research, quasi-experimental, exploratory and educational research) from the bibliographic matrix, it is concluded that mime game positively influences students motivation for memorizing vocabulary, as it provides funny and meaningful learning experiences that catch students interest for EFL learning.

 

Theoretical framework

A considerable amount of literature has been published in relation to young learners vocabulary improvement. These studies had as main objective to improve students vocabulary mastery by using the mime game. (Nim 2016; Harti 2016; Nurul, Zuhud & Supian 2016; Mardhatillah & Ratmanida 2016; Patriwi 2017; Arum 2017; Purnama 2017; Ramarh & Asrifan 2018). Students from all around the world were recruited for all these studies. They were from fourth grade to seventh grade at the primary school.

 

Young Learners: Characteristics of young learners

In 2010, Rixon states that young learners are those learners aged between 5 and 12 years olds. Some experts in second/foreign language teaching have illustrated the characteristics of children and children's cognitive development as follows: Scott (2001:89) and Musthafa (2000) assert that children in preschool or primary setting in generally learn by way of physical activities (learning by doing). This means that they learn through hands-on experiences and through manipulation of objects in the environment. In addition, Harmer (2007) states that children's understanding comes not from the explanation, but from what they see and hear, and crucially, have a chance to touch and interact with.

Harmer (2006: 38) claims that young children especially those up to the ages of nine or ten learn differently from older children, adolescents, and adults. Young learners learn more indirectly than directly from everything around them. By hearing, seeing, touching and interacting, as they show enthusiasm and curiosity about their surroundings. However, they have short attention spans, which is why they easily get bored and easily lose interest during motiveless teaching lessons.

 

Teaching English to young learners

Jazuly and Indrayani (2018) support that the main reason for teaching English to young learners is the convenience of their age for language acquisition. The belief that younger is better and children learn much more quickly and efficiently is generally appreciated by many especially by the supporters of Critical Period Hypothesis.

Pransiska (2016) explains that teaching young learners is by no means the same as teaching adults. In teaching young language learners, Pinter (2006) points out a number of reasons why children can benefit from learning a foreign language. It can develop childrens basic communication abilities in the language. Communication abilities need to be stimulated as early as possible. Teaching English also encourages enjoyment and motivation for language learning especially when it is in a fun way. In addition, children can also promote learning about other cultures and develop childrens cognitive skills as well as developing children's metalinguistic awareness. Learning a language means learning about the culture.

From the theories above we can know that the best learning English language is in early age. The objectives of teaching English in elementary school is aimed to get students to know and be able to memorize vocabulary as many as possible, because vocabulary is the first step that should be learnt by young learners before they have to learn Listening skill, Speaking skill, Reading skill, and simple Writing in English.

 

Vocabulary

A key aspect when learning English as a foreign language is vocabulary. In 2004 Wilkins pointed out vocabulary as the language system that should be developed before the others, since without vocabulary any idea can be conveyed and even grammar knowledge is helpless.

Rohmatilla (n.d.) offers two ways of understanding vocabulary definition. The first one is based on Richards and Renandya studies, this point of view recognizes vocabulary from its role within the language. They define it as the core component of language proficiency, and the basis for developing the main four language systems, speaking, writing, reading and listening. The second definition takes a more academic point of view and it raises up from Hatch and Brown thoughts. They describe vocabulary as a set of words of a particular language that speaker might use in certain situations.

 

The importance of vocabulary in learning language at a young age

Vocabulary is a basic tool for communication. Kamil and Hierbert (2005) claim that vocabulary is the primary foundation of the language. Therefore, Rohmatillah (2014) suggests that young learners cannot improve their English proficiency without mastering vocabulary, since students with poor mastery of vocabulary hardly communicate clear thoughts in the target language. This is how Davis Wilkins (n.d) also has stressed the importance of vocabulary learning. He believes that: with mastering vocabulary it can help students to be easy to communicate with each other. Not only that, but also mastering vocabulary can understand the meaning of words when students listen, speak, read and write in English

 

Approaches for supporting vocabulary understanding in young learners

For teaching vocabulary in the EFL classroom, three main aspects of the lesson design should be taken into consideration for creating meaningful learning opportunities, they are: supporting material, instructional aspects and guides for selecting vocabulary. In his study entitled Miming game as medium to improve students vocabulary mastery Arum (2017) has reported some approaches to help students to understand the meaning of a word. These are: demonstration, where students learn new vocabulary items by gestures or performing actions; pictures, where teachers can use photographs, blackboard drawings or illustrations; and finally, explanation by translating, giving synonyms or opposites. Thus, he suggests that EFL educators should understand the materials and prepare good techniques in order to gain the target of English language teaching.

Much empirical work has been done on instructional aspects to teach new words to young learners. According to Slaterry & Wills (n.d) EFL teachers can drive their attention to some ways for reaching successful learning: a) make learning enjoyable and fun, b) use a lot of gestures and action, c) play games, and d) recycle vocabulary. In this way, they can wake up students mind and put them in a better mood to learn. Therefore, ESL teachers have many ways to make vocabulary learning more effective.

 

 

Communicative Approach for teaching vocabulary

Communicative Language Teaching is based on many modern linguistic theories and once it was raised up in the 90s it started to gain recognition due to its lesson design. It focuses on the fact that learning a language is not merely mastery of grammatical instructions, but communicative proficiency.

Since the use of Communicative approach for teaching foreign languages teachers started to drive their lessons to make students use the language in order to understand and express ideas using the target language in different situations like in real life. Its success lies in its dynamism during the instruction, students learn through movies, drills, repetition, pictures describing and games, all of them aimed to communicate content and meaning rather than linguistic forms.

Ohashi (n.d.) claims that communicative approach makes a great emphasis on playing, especially when teaching to young learners. They enjoy playful learning, movements and gestures also work with them as they feel engaged to participate and take part in the activities. Communicative approach also uses games as part of the instruction to promote teamwork and communicative interaction among students. As a consequence, students feel confident among their peers and take risks to start communicating and discovering language forms in the target language.

Moreover, Wajid and Saleem (2017) point out that the use of CLT techniques helps to increase students interest and class participation. This approach supports teachers to base their lessons on their students preferences. Since young learners have a short attention span, interesting and enjoyable lessons engage them even more into the learning process, as they will start learning moved by funny but meaningful experiences.

 

Games as technique of the Communicative Approach: The benefits of games for learning vocabulary

Games are really used when teaching young learners, Allen (2016) and Pratiwi (2017) claim that: Games are an effective method in the vocabulary learning process. When the students are having fun, they are more likely to take risks, make mistakes without having feelings of failure, and try to overcome their initial flings of confusion when they encounter new words and patterns, because it always used to be easier to catch material. Therefore, the learning can be implemented as real learning for the students easily.

Additionally, Harti (2016) points out that games help students to revise vocabulary and when recalling something that happened in a game may help students to remember the language connected with it because they make students feel that certain words are important and necessary. Without those words, the objective of the game cannot be achieved. In consequence, when playing a game, they will concentrate and will try to recall words learned.

 

Types of games within the Communicative Approach

Moreover, Halfield (2016) lists two kinds of games that EFL teachers can use for mime game strategy. Firstly, competitive games, in which learners or teams play race to be the first to reach the goal. Then, cooperatives games, in which learners or teams work together for a common goal. Taking this into account, games help teachers to create contexts in which the language is useful and meaningful. Thus, games provide one way of helping learners to experience language rather than merely study it.

 

Mime game as a teaching vocabulary with young learners

Pinter, 2006 suggests that mime game is the most appropriate guessing game applied in language classroom. That is how Pinter (2017) suggests the development of mime game for reaching meaningful learning of vocabulary items. It enhances students' creativity, as they use their body as an instrument to act out their ideas and let their classmates guess. The success of this strategy rises up from its capacity to create fun, relaxed and non-threatened environments for young learners. As a result, students feel more confident about their ability to learn and improve their vocabulary mastery significantly.

Furthermore, in the development of mime game occurs two forms of communication: verbal and non-verbal communication. Verbal communication is when learners interact by using the words in order to communicate with each other. Whereas non-verbal communication is when learners interact by using body language such as: gestures, body movements, and facial expressions. Therefore, the most important function of implementing mime game in the EFL class is to give practice in communication, since it helps students to remember their vocabulary and they also have the chance to learn new vocabulary items as these types of games make more fun and enjoyable English learning lessons for students.

 

Process of mime game for improving vocabulary in young learners

In 2017, Pratiwi described the ideal development of mime game in EFL classrooms. He argues that vocabulary introduction should be developed at the beginning of the lesson. Once the target vocabulary has been introduced, immediately practice is needed, hence the explanation about the game is the next step. During this step, Pratiwi highlights the importance of making sure students understand what they are expected to do. During the development of the game, students are banned to speak or make any sound. They are only allowed to mime the word through body movements or gestures. This is the key point in which students ability to learn and creativity are combined.

Mardhatillah & Ratmanida (n.d) argues for feedback as the complement for Pratiwis process. They suggest feedback at the end of the activity and also that it should focus on both positive and negative aspects of students performance. On one hand, when students are told that they did well, their motivation rise up, and when they realize about their mistakes, they can improve and increase their current performance as well as use it as a tool for continued learning. As a result, lifelong learning is boosted.

Derived from the studies mentioned before. There was a significant positive correlation between mime game and students vocabulary mastery. It was evident the improvement of students scores in post-tests, general grades and in their attitude towards vocabulary learning activities. Therefore, it can be concluded that the implementation of mime game can significantly improve the students vocabulary mastery as it helps students to remember the language connected with it. In addition, it fosters learners motivation and creativity for language learning, and even learners psychological stress can be decreased since games make more funny and enjoyable language lessons.

 

Methodology

This chapter presents the methodology that was used to develop the research. It covers the bibliographic research that is the type of research done, hermeneutic method, which was employed for the literature review process, and descriptive method, which was applied for reporting results based on the analysis done in the research papers selected such as: action research, quasi-experimental, exploratory and educational research.

The focus of this bibliographic research is to determine mime games influence on young learners vocabulary mastery based on experiments that have been already done by other researchers - bibliographic research. For reaching this outcome, the researches selected, compiled, organized, interpreted and analyzed different papers that describe particularly how mime game affected students' vocabulary mastery in different situations.

A wide previous research was done in order to select the most helpful information, then it was compiled into a annotated bibliography matrix (see annex 1), after that, according to the objectives and aspects that some of them have in common, they were organized in another matrix (see annex 2). Once the information was ready to be analyzed, the researchers interpreted the results gathered on those papers, the quantitative and qualitative data found were taken into consideration, for instance, students' scores and attitudes towards the experiments carried out. Finally, the data analysis was guided by three aspects, the score students got during mime game application, the motivation fostered and the atmosphere created.

In order to elaborate a rigorous literature review, the researchers used the hermeneutic circle of analysis and interpretation, which consists of six steps. First, through analytic reading the researchers garner further understanding of the main topic, it allowed to identify key concepts, approaches, theories and findings about mime game. During the second step, the researchers carefully selected the most useful information to be analyzed. Third, a critical assessment was conducted for the purpose of analyzing and evaluating the weakness and strengths of each study. Fourth, the information was segmented in order to exactly identify the subcategories that will be much deeply analyzed. Fifth, all the material gathered and selected will be evaluated to ensure it will satisfy the research necessities. Finally, the researchers organized the concepts, which were from the general to the particular (deductive process).

Descriptive method was chosen because the purpose of this bibliographic research is to explain, based on researches already done, how the mime game as a technique of the communicative approach affects young learners vocabulary mastery. Therefore, this research used the main foundations of the descriptive method: to define how young learners learn vocabulary and how mime game is applied in language classrooms, to characterize young learners learning process and mime game application, and to describe the process of mime game, the results gotten in previous researches and the conclusions gotten from them.

 

 

Results and discussion

Results from earlier studies demonstrate a strong and consistent positive association between communicative approach - mime game application and young learners vocabulary mastery development. For this research 20 articles were classified and analyzed according to the purposes for which they were conducted, and the literature worked on them about young learners learning, communicative approach and mime game. As it is shown in figure 1.

 


Figure 1: Mime game for improving young learners vocabulary mastery. Previous researches.

Note: The figure is divided into six objectives, apart from that, papers included in the blue escale are focused on teaching vocabulary, the ones in yellow about communicative approach and finally, the ones included in red on mime game.

 

According to figure 1. The researchers studied 20 researches interrelated among them, 40 percent of the articles were analyzed to understand what is the most suitable technique that helps young learners to improve their vocabulary. The 20 percent was used to find out how a communicative approach could help students' vocabulary and which activities from it might be chosen. Finally, 40 percent of the papers provided researches with all the information necessary to affirm whether the use of mime game can really improve students' vocabulary mastery. The six objectives shown in figure 1 are described below.

 

Table 1:Articles aimed to find out kinds and factors of students difficulties for learning vocabulary

Objective.

Country.

Theme, author, year.

.kYoung learners difficulties for learning vocabulary

 

To find out kinds and factors of students difficulties for learning vocabulary

 

(18, 19)

Indonesia

        A study on young learners' difficulties in learning vocabulary.

 

(Rohmatillah, 2014)

Indonesia

        Analyzing students difficulty to remember vocabulary: A case study at SMPN 12 Mataram.

 

(Anugerah Al Layli, 2017)

 

Corresponding to the 10% of the articles analyzed, it is shown in table 1 that when teaching vocabulary to young learners Rohmatillah (2014) and Layli (2017) agree that remembering is the greatest problem for young learners to improve their vocabulary. During the development of their case studies, lists of vocabulary and systematic practice seemed to make it even more difficult for students to internalize the words they memorize and keep them in their long-term memory. They suggested association and gestures activities for effective learning, for example mime game, in which students associate the gestures and body movements with the vocabulary, recalling it when they need it.

 

Table 2: Articles aimed to investigate the best strategies, methods and techniques to teach vocabulary to young learners.

Objective.

Country.

Theme, author, year.

2.kMethods, techniques and strategies to teach vocabulary to young learners.

To know and understand what are the best strategies, methods and techniques to teach vocabulary to young learners.

(3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 20)

 

Australia

        Why and How EFL Students Learn Vocabulary in Parliamentary Debate Class.

(Eunice M. Aclan, February, 2015)

India

        Strategies for teaching vocabulary.

(TESS India)

Spain

        The techniques used in teaching vocabulary to young learners.

(Anita Wahyuni, Anik Nunuk Wulyani, and Maria Hidayati, n.d)

Indonesia

        Effective techniques in teaching vocabulary to young learners.

(Desthia Amalia, april, 2019)

 

Ecuador

        Methods and techniques for vocabulary teaching used in the fifth, sixth and seventh grade at Repblica del Ecuador primary school.

(Jhordan Stalin Mejia Matute, 2020)

Indonesia

        Techniques in Teaching Vocabulary to Young Learners at LIA English Course.

(Astuti Pratiwi Rahmadhani, S.Pd., M.Pd. Sekolah Tinggi Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan, 2015)

 

The data presented in Table 2 indicates that 30% of the researchers have investigated what techniques or strategies are the most suitable for young learners when learning vocabulary. Firstly, Anita Wahyuni, Anik Wulyani, and Maria Hidayati found out that the common techniques that EFL teachers used were: noticing unfamiliar words, writing words down, repetition and translation, which are called conventional techniques. However, Aclan (2015) claims that when teaching vocabulary communicative activities must be emphasized as a medium to improve students vocabulary mastery. In this way, Pratiwi, Pendidikan (2015), Amalia (2019) and Mejia (2020) carried out several studies where they analyzed that communicative techniques such as: using the new words in context, using real objects, brainstorming, answer and question, modeling and demonstration, and mime games can enhance learners vocabulary as those activities help them to recall the vocabulary as well as to enrich their communicative abilities.

 

Table 3: Articles aimed to critically examine communicative language teaching with the intent to identify appropriate classroom practice for young learners.

Objective.

Country.

Theme, author, year.

3.kCommunicative Approach as a process for Young Learners: Methodology.

To critically examine communicative language teaching with the intent to identify appropriate classroom practice for young learners.

 

Japan

         Communicative Language Teaching for Young Learners of English: A Critical Perspective.

(Yumi Ohashi, n.d)

 

 

Table 3 demonstrates that 5% of the trials have focused on the application of communicative approach. When teaching to young learners, the Ecuadorian national curriculum emphasizes the necessity of a communicative approach to the teaching - learning process. In her work about communicative approach for teaching young learners, Yumi Ohashi (n.d) also stresses the successful application of communicative approach for reaching meaningful learning in young learners. In her bibliographic research, she explains how students react better to learning activities that are similar to those in real life, and feel more engaged in the learning process, that is why she totally recommended it and the activities that are framed into this approach.

 

Table 4: Articles aimed to describe the communicative techniques used by EFL teachers in teaching English vocabulary for young learners.

Objective.

Country.

 

Theme, author, year.

4.gCommunicative Techniques for teaching vocabulary

To describe the communicative techniques used by EFL teachers in teaching English vocabulary for young learners

(1, 2, 5)

Sweden

         Communicative Language Teaching in Vocabulary Teaching and Learning in a Swedish Comprehensive Class.

(Jue Xia, 2010)

Indonesia

         The teaching of English vocabulary to young learners.

(Setiani Lelawati, Selma Dhiya, Putri Nurazijah Mailani, March, 2018)

Japan

         Using the communicative approach to teach vocabulary to young learners.

(OnTESOL, n.d)

 

As table 4 shows, the 15 % of papers concluded that Communicative Approach is a useful method to teach vocabulary specially for young learners. According to CLT (Communicative Language Teaching), the learners must develop skills and strategies for using language to communicate meanings as effectively as possible in concrete situations, this is why Jue Xia (2010) stresses teaching of vocabulary meaning as a way to reach that desired situation. Thus, in his research he uses communicative activities to improve students' vocabulary as this method offers students the possibility of carrying out a large number of oral activities through games, role plays, oral presentations, music, drama and gestures. In the same way, Lelawati, Selma and Mailani (2018) highlights in their research that CLT involves many strategies to teach vocabulary such as listen and repeat, question and answer, role play, games and miming. Therefore, CLT is an efficient method for teaching vocabulary as it contains a wide range of activities that allows students to practice the new words in a real context, creating opportunities for authentic and creative use of English language.

 

Table 5: Articles aimed to discuss the use of 'mime game' in teaching English vocabulary for young learners.

Objective.

Country.

Theme, author, year.

 

5. Mime game as an effective technique for enhancing vocabulary in young learners.

To discuss the use of 'mime game' in teaching English vocabulary for young learners. the use of 'mime game' in teaching English.

 

(10, 11, 15, 16)

Indonesia

         The Chinese mime game in teaching vocabulary on EFL classroom.

(Andi Patimah Ramarh Apdy & Andi Asrifan, 2018)

 

Indonesia

         Improving students vocabulary mastery by using mime game in SMPN 3 Sungai Raya.

(Eni Purnama, 2017)

 

 

         2016/2017.

(Reny Ika Pratiwi, 2017)

Indonesia

         The effectiveness of using miming game in teaching vocabulary of the fourth-grade students at SDN 01 Suwaluh Pakel in academic year

 

Indonesia

         Improving students vocabulary mastery by using mime game in SMPN 3 Sungai Raya.

(Eni Purnama, 2017)

 

 

Table 5 demonstrates that according to the 20% of the researchers analyzed. In English teaching in young learners, games as a communicative activity play an important role in the learning process because they encourage young learners to acquire the language in a fun way, so they make students feel motivated and interested in English learning. In these researches, the mime game is considered as the most suitable to improve the vocabulary in young learners. As stated by Andy (2018), Eni (2017) and Depa (2016), mime game can motivate students to participate actively in the learning process, at the same time, they can improve their vocabulary. Additionally, Reny (2017) emphasizes the use of mime game as tool to recognize and recall the new vocabulary that they learn because games help students revise vocabulary and recalling something that happened in a game may help a student remember the language connected with it.

 

Table 6: Articles aimed to explain how miming game could improve students achievements in learning English vocabulary

Objective.

Country.

Theme, author, year.

6.lProcess of mime game for increasing vocabulary in young learners.

 

To explain how miming game could improve the students' achievements in learning English vocabulary.

 

 

(12, 13, 14, 17)

 

Indonesia

         The use of Mime Game in Improving Students Vocabulary.

(Annisa Nurul Fadillah and Dudih A. Zuhud and Supian, 2016),

Indonesia

         Miming game as a medium to improve students vocabulary mastery.

(Sustiyana Intan Arum Sari, 2017)

No specified

Using mime game to teach vocabulary to young learners.

(Mardhatillah & Ratmanida, n.d)

Indonesia

         Improving students vocabulary by using miming game at fourth grade of Mi BaiturrohmanSuwalu h.

(Jamalina Nim, 2016)

 

Based on the Table 6, 10% of studies describe how mime game should be implemented to reach successful learning. Dudih et al (2016), Arum (2017), Mardhatilla et all (n.d) and Nim (2016) agree about the instructional focus teachers should follow. They suggest that its is important to first introduce the target vocabulary before performing the game, once students know the vocabulary, they are ready to play, here they emphasizes the fact that demonstration might help students to understand better what they are expected to do, so they are banned to speak, they just need to act out a word and the others need to guess. Finally, they argue that feedback makes learning even more meaningful, it should include both positive and negative aspects of students' performance, positive aspects motivate them to learn and the negatives enhance them to keep improving.

In their experimental studies, all the researchers applied the process described before, as a consequence, students evidently improved their vocabulary mastery, not only in scores, but in attitude. The researchers described how after the treatment, students were willing to participate, take risks and make mistakes when playing, the team work that the game involved made them feel even more confident about their capacity to learn and improve their English language proficiency.

Conclusions

This research project has discussed the influence of mime game as part of the communicative approach on young learners vocabulary mastery based on previous researches that have been already conducted. It is now possible to state that:

1.    Association and gestures activities provide great support for young learners while learning new vocabulary. These types of activities help students to recall the vocabulary they have learnt when they need it, since they associate some gestures to specific vocabulary so it is easy for them to remember them. Mime game is suggested as one activity that can enhance students vocabulary learning.

2.    Activities with a communicative approach produce a greater impact on students when learning vocabulary, this kind of activities creates a more active and meaningful environment for learning, especially for young learners. Communicative approach offers activities in which students use the language like in real life situations, they react better to those less systematic activities, they feel engaged and motivated to learn.

3.    Mime game is an activity framed into the communicative approach and widely used for teaching vocabulary. Its process of introducing and practicing vocabulary enhances students to feel confident about their abilities to learn, and it is supported by the team work involved. Students are motivated to participate in class and take an active role in the learning process, in the same way, the feedback provided encourages them to keep improving, not just by telling negative aspects, but by telling them they did well.

In general, the findings of this study suggest that the application of the Communicative approach provides meaningful activities for students to use the language. Specially, for learning vocabulary, association and gestures activities are recommended for young learners, so they might find the learning process easier and less stressful, particularly, mime game is suggested, as it enhances students to take risks, make mistakes, work as a team and keep improving within less threatening situations.

 

Referencias

1.           Arum Sari, S. I. (2017). PDF Documents. Retrieved 2020, from Miming game as a medium to improve students vocabulary mastery.

2.           Ika Pratiwi, R. (2017). Insitutional Repository. Retrieved 2020, from The effectiveness of using miming game in teaching vocabulary of the fourth-grade students at SDN 01 Suwaluh Pakel in academic year 2016/2017.: http://repo.iain-tulungagung.ac.id/7906/

3.           Lelawati, S., Dhiya, S., & Nurazijah Mai, P. (2018, March). Journalist. Retrieved 2020, from The teaching of English vocabulary to young learners.: https://journal.ikipsiliwangi.ac.id/index.php/project/article/download/457/63

4.           Mardhatillah, M., & Ratmanida , R. (n.d.). PDF Documents. Retrieved 2020, from Using mime game to teach vocabulary to young learners: http://ejournal.unp.ac.id/index.php/jelt/article/view/7280

5.           Ramarh Apdy , A., & Asrifan, A. (2018). PDF Documents. Retrieved 2020, from The Chinese mime game in teaching vocabulary on EFL classroom: https://ojs.unm.ac.id/teflin65/article/viewFile/6246/pdf_7

6.           Aclan, E. M. (2015, February). Why and How EFL Students Learn Vocabulary in Parliamentary Debate Class. Retrieved 2020, from http://www.journals.aiac.org.au/index.php/alls/article/view/628

7.           Amalia, D. (2019, April). Pearson. Retrieved 2020, from Effective techniques in teaching vocabulary to young learners: https://www.english.com/blog/teaching-vocabulary-to-young-learners/

8.           INDIA, T. (n.d.). Strategies for teaching vocabulary. Retrieved 2020, from https://www.open.edu/openlearncreate/pluginfile.php/161371/mod_resource/content/2/SE11_WB_Final.pdf

9.           Juli Harti, D. (2016). PDF Documents. Retrieved 2020, from The effect of Mime Game toward students vocabulary mastery: http://repository.iainbengkulu.ac.id/3437/1/DEPA%20JULI%20HARTI.pdf

10.       Layli, A. A. (2017). Analyzing students difficulty to remember vocabulary. Retrieved 2020, from https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/ANALYZING-STUDENTS-DIFFICULTY-TO-REMEMBER-A-CASE-AT-Layli/02796f345131ac738023d16eaf821edb5c5329d3

11.       Mejia Matute, J. S. (2020). Universidad de Cuenca-Repositorio Institucional. Retrieved 2020, from Methods and techniques for vocabulary teaching used in the fifth, sixth and seventh grade at Repblica del Ecuador primary school: http://dspace.ucuenca.edu.ec/handle/123456789/33860

12.       Nim, J. (2016). PDF Documents. Retrieved 2020, from Improving students vocabulary by using miming game: https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/79444287.pdf

13.       Nurul Fadillah , A., Zuhud , D., & Supi. (2016). Institutional Repositories. Retrieved 2020, from The use of Mime Game in Improving Students Vocabulary: http://repository.unpas.ac.id/13750/

14.       Ohashi, Y. (n.d.). PDF Documents. Retrieved 2020, from Communicative Language Teaching for Young Learners of English: A Critical Perspective.

15.       OnTesol. (n.d.). OnTesol. Retrieved 2020, from Using the communicative approach to teach vocabulary to young learners: https://how-to-teach-english.ontesol.com/using-the-communicative-approach-to-teach-vocabulary/

16.       Pratiwi Rahmadhani, A., & , S.Pd., M.Pd. Sekolah Ti. (2015). Semantic Schoolar. Retrieved 2020, from Techniques in Teaching Vocabulary to Young Learners at LIA English Course: https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Techniques-in-Teaching-Vocabulary-to-Young-Learners-Ramadhani/e04d2a35109a158dfe635047973af91bc3008670

17.       Purnarma, E. (2017). Neliti Publications. Retrieved 2020, from Improving students vocabulary mastery by using mime game in SMPN 3 Sungai Raya.: https://www.neliti.com/publications/212043/improving-students-vocabulary-mastery-by-using-mime-game-in-smpn-3-sungai-raya.

 

 

 

2020 por los autores. Este artculo es de acceso abierto y distribuido segn los trminos y condiciones de la licencia Creative Commons Atribucin-NoComercial-CompartirIgual 4.0 Internacional (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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