Características clínicas y tratamiento farmacológico en la esquizofrenia de inicio en la infancia. Una revisión

David Israel Guerrero-Vaca, Darío Javier Guerrero-Vaca, Verónica Fernanda Flores-Hernández, Cristián David Guzmán-Carrasco

Resumen


Introducción: La esquizofrenia es considerada como un trastorno psicótico que afecta las funciones mentales superiores, especialmente en el pensamiento, lenguaje y sensopercepciones. Esta psicopatología puede desarrollarse y presentar síntomas de manera temprana en la infancia o en la adolescencia. Sin embargo, los estudios actuales concentran su atención en población adulta. Objetivo: A través de esta investigación se pretende caracterizar la esquizofrenia infantil y describir los principales tratamientos utilizados en estos trastornos. Metodología: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica no sistemática, estableciendo búsquedas a través de operadores booleanos en bases de datos como Scielo, Academic, Redalyc, Elsevier, PubMed, Scielo, entre otras. Resultados: Considerando criterios de inclusión y exclusión, se revisaron y analizaron 30 artículos científicos que contenían definición, etiología, causas, epidemiología, diagnóstico y tratamiento. Discusión: La esquizofrenia se presenta en la niñez y adolescencia con mayor frecuencia en hombres que en mujeres. En este grupo poblacional los síntomas pueden variar, con mayor afectación en las relaciones sociales, en la comunicación, pensamiento y emociones. El diagnóstico temprano podría disminuir y controlar los síntomas positivos de la esquizofrenia, aunque se considera que mientras más precoz sea su aparición, peor pronóstico y evolución tendrá este trastorno. Conclusión: Es necesario conocer y diagnosticar la esquizofrenia de manera rápida para entablar un tratamiento adecuado que permita mejor la calidad de vida del paciente, familia y su entorno.


Palabras clave


Esquizofrenia; niñez; adolescencia; características clínicas; tratamiento.

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.23857/dc.v8i2.2657

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Copyright (c) 2022 David Israel Guerrero-Vaca, Darío Javier Guerrero-Vaca, Verónica Fernanda Flores-Hernández, Cristián David Guzmán-Carrasco

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