Ciencias Educativas

Artculo de Investigacin

 

 

El pensamiento globalizado llevado a las aulas de lenguas extranjeras

 

Globalized thinking brought to foreign language classrooms

 

Pensamento globalizado trazido s salas de aula de lnguas estrangeiras

 

 

Glenda Morales-Ramrez I
glenda. moralesr@ug.edu.ec https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8320-1745
Mara Jos Barragn-Camacho II
maria.barraganc@ug.edu.ec
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2835-6319
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Correspondencia: glenda. [email protected]

 

 

*Recibido: 29 de junio del 2022 *Aceptado: 12 de julio de 2022 * Publicado: 10de agosto de 2022

 

 

        I.            Professor at the University of Guayaquil, Ecuador.

      II.            Professor at the University of Guayaquil, Ecuador.

 

 

 

 

Resumen

Este documento comparte experiencias de educadoras TEFL en Guayaquil, Ecuador, que consideran que su rol docente abarca mucho ms que la transmisin del conocimiento en el idioma y del perfeccionamiento de competencias comunicativas, dicho rol tambin debe promover el desarrollo de pensamiento crtico, globalizado y creativo, el respeto para el ser humano: sus derechos, diversidad y la prctica de valores. Los estudiantes generalmente aprenden Ingls como Idioma Extranjero para fines acadmicos y comunicativos, pero existe un llamado mundial que convoca a difundir desde nuestros ambientes escolares el aspecto sociolgico que permita conectar sus conocimientos tericos en acciones practicas fuera del aula, llevando a los estudiantes a conectar las entradas lxicas y configuraciones sintcticas aprendidas y pragmtico de la lengua a su alrededor, encontrar similitudes y diferencias con otros vecinos, amigos y otros continentes; tener una perspectiva mundial. En el mundo globalmente conectado de hoy es esencial para los estudiantes a tener una comprensin de un mundo ms grande, una tierra de conexin y el respeto. Adoptando este enfoque de lenguaje comunicativo global, estamos creando una comunidad de aprendizaje abierta a las diferencias. Influenciados por la competencia comunicativa mundial, formar ciudadana y la tolerancia en las nuevas generaciones.

Palabras clave: Pensamiento globalizado; Idioma extranjero; Idioma ingls; Educacin superior.

 

Abstract

This document shares experiences of TEFL educators in Guayaquil, Ecuador, who consider that their teaching role encompasses much more than the transmission of knowledge in the language and the improvement of communicative skills, this role should also promote the development of critical, globalized and creative thinking, respect for the human being: their rights, diversity and the practice of values. Students generally learn English as a Foreign Language for academic and communicative purposes, but there is a worldwide call that calls to disseminate from our school environments the sociological aspect that allows connecting their theoretical knowledge in practical actions outside the classroom, leading students to connect the lexical inputs and syntactic configurations learned and pragmatic of the language around them, find similarities and differences with other neighbors, friends and other continents; have a global perspective. In today's globally connected world it is essential for students to have an understanding of a larger world, a land of connection and respect. By adopting this global communicative language approach, we are creating a learning community open to differences. Influenced by global communicative competence, it will form citizenship and tolerance in the new generations.

Keywords: globalized thinking; foreign language; English language; higher education.

 

Resumo

Este documento compartilha experincias de educadores TEFL em Guayaquil, Equador, que consideram que seu papel docente abrange muito mais do que a transmisso de conhecimento no idioma e o aprimoramento das habilidades de comunicao, este papel tambm deve promover o desenvolvimento do pensamento crtico, globalizado e criativo . , respeito ao ser humano: seus direitos, diversidade e prtica de valores. Os alunos geralmente aprendem Ingls como Lngua Estrangeira para fins acadmicos e comunicativos, mas h um chamado mundial que convoca a difundir de nossos ambientes escolares o aspecto sociolgico que permite conectar seus conhecimentos tericos em aes prticas fora da sala de aula, levando os alunos a conectar o lxico entradas e configuraes sintticas aprendidas e pragmticas da lngua ao seu redor, encontre semelhanas e diferenas com outros vizinhos, amigos e outros continentes; ter uma viso global. No mundo globalmente conectado de hoje, essencial que os alunos tenham uma compreenso de um mundo maior, uma terra de conexo e respeito. Ao adotar essa abordagem de linguagem comunicativa global, estamos criando uma comunidade de aprendizado aberta s diferenas. Influenciado pela competncia comunicativa global, formar a cidadania e a tolerncia nas novas geraes.

Palavras-chave: Pensamento globalizado; Lngua estrangeira; Idioma ingls; Educao superior.

 

Introduccin

Khan (2020) alleges in his study: Exploring the Role of Dialogic Teaching in Improving Learners' Spoken English at Intermediate Level in District Bannu, that the English language has been consolidated over time not only as an indispensable means for effective communication around the world, but also as one of the most taught and practiced foreign languages. It is, therefore, a challenge to prepare students in this language to excel not only in the linguistic but also cultural field. Students seek to learn it quickly through motivating classes taught by teachers who must be constantly updated to capture their attention and produce meaningful learning of the language, through the use of innovative technological resources and without neglecting personal identity and values. On the other hand, the Common European Framework of Reference highlights the importance of the cultural dimension, where students must be competent not only with the language but also their profile must be enriched interculturally. In order to train students who must be competent and sensitive to differences and similarities between cultures, countries, people, ethnicities and values of honor and respect for diversity.

According to Cubas (2020),since the main objective of contemporary education is to improve the quality of education to favor social inclusion, it is the obligation as teachers to educate our students for 21 centuries not only locally, but also globally, culturally and communicatively competent. For these guidelines, the Ministry of Education in Ecuador has promoted the new Program for Learning English as a Foreign Language, considering on the one hand that students start this process from their first years of basic education, as well as implementing new approaches following current, globalized and pedagogical trends such as the application of CLIL (Integrated learning of content and language) and the high incidence of the Communicative Approach in students that seek to achieve bilingual education

that the development of an intercultural competence does not belong exclusively to a new methodology, it is a communicative competence that has partially been integrated, without occupying the transcendental place that corresponds to it, however it is necessary to remember that for the new generations of learners this element plays a decisive role, because it allows them to interact with other cultures, using the appropriate language, as well as the corresponding paralinguistic elements such as gestures, facial expressions which facilitate the decoding of the message.

This reflection article leads the reader to understand the importance of multi-linguistic learning in globalized thinking, as a phenomenon that is getting closer and closer to the fact that knowledge needs new sources and these are not only secondary. Since, when obtaining information from primary source, the student must understand the language. It is stated that this is no longer a myth, and thought must use a more diversified language. The first objective was to establish globalized thinking through global communication, thought and myth. As a second objective, multi-linguistic learning was analyzed from an individual and social phenomenon. Finally, define the multi-lingual approach between teaching and learning.

 

Development

Nowadays it is not possible to consider the study of a foreign language without developing the communicative competences of the language whose main components are linguistic, sociolinguistic and pragmatic elements that promote the formation of an integral and competent learning.

The teaching of foreign languages in the twenty-first century focuses on (...) instructing our students how to use language communicatively. Given the globalization we are experiencing, communicative competence implies cultural awareness as a means to communicate effectively with other people who do not share the same cultural background(Rmer & Garner, 2019, p.355).

Within the communicative competences, the intercultural theme reaffirms the ability to interact with others, creating culturally respectful students and sensitive to the differences and similarities observed in the world. For Peters (2018), cultural awareness has become an important focus of modern language teaching, a shift that reflects a greater awareness of the inseparability of the need to prepare students for intercultural communication, language and culture (p. 71).

Language must continue to be taught, but adding one more ingredient, the intercultural component. Interculturality is justified as a response to the globalization trends of the 21st century, since young people understand that the learning of other languages not only forms them academically, but also constitutes a plus in their personal training and allows them to be participants in the great opportunities that are opened globally, such as academic scholarships, student mobility and highly competent sources of work that take them to other destinations. And it is here, where teachers fulfill their task, that of providing the student with skills not only linguistic, but also sensitizing and enriching them with an intercultural vision; that is, to understand the differences and similarities between cultures, to learn a language of appropriate behaviors between cities, countries and to guide them in understanding the world and other cultures through a second language(Jeyaraj, 2018).

According to Morales et al., (2018),when the Ecuadorian teacher works with determination and perseverance in his teaching practices, unfortunately teaching in certain public sectors becomes difficult due to the lack of technology and didactic resources that promote the vision of a window to the world; but in the same way it is important to include within the curriculum spaces that provide students with opportunities, not only that they connect them with the real world, but that they strengthen their critical compression skills, as well as develop techniques that allow them to empower themselves from their learnings. That is why the National Directorate of Curriculum as part of the educational policy has designed a new English foreign language curriculum that responds to the needs of the Ecuadorian reality.

As indicated in Foreign Languageof the Ministry of Education (2021),the curricular proposal is designed for students from 2nd to 10th grade of Basic General Education and from 1st to 3rd of Unified General Baccalaureate, whose mother tongue is not English. Since the Ecuadorian population is made up of groups from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds, this curriculum recognizes that not all students in Ecuador are L1 Spanish speakers and there are varying degrees of bilingualism in the communities. In line with the needs of a linguistically and culturally diverse population, this proposal presents a rationale and framework for learning English while recognizing and facilitating the educational inclusion of pupils, regardless of their mother tongue.

Tarasenko et al., (2022) consider this way a flexible curricular proposal is presented, developed in five curricular blocks aligned with the exit profile and the values of justice, innovation and solidarity that it promotes, as well as with the Common Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR). Among the principles of the document are the teaching and learning of the English language under the approach of communicative language, since it is indicated that the language is learned through a real and interactive communication and not memorized. So also integrate language learning with cultural and cognitive aspects, that is, Content Integrated Learning for CLIL Foreign Languages. Although the communicative approach was developed in the 70s, it continues to be the basis for different methodologies in the teaching of foreign languages.

While the CLIL methodology, which is part of the Ecuadorian curriculum, gives the student the possibility of learning the content of a subject through a second language, in order to learn in an integrated way, the contents and the English language integrating the 4 skills. CLIL education is low, not only bilingual students are achieved; but multicultural, and interculturality is strengthened as a socializing vehicle(B. M. Y. Garca et al., 2019).

Zhang and Zou (2022) propose the development of the proposal of the 4Cs, that is, the main components of the AICEL methodology, with the purpose of planning, designing and organizing the activities that students must work on in an CLIL class in order to acquire knowledge, skills and understand the content through an enriching process of critical understanding, as well as interacting and using the English language, strengthening values of justice, equality, tolerance and responsibility.

For Banegas and Del Pozo (2022), the content, is the new knowledge and skills that students must acquire by socializing and interacting with others. It is a constructivist learning and the topics are interconnected in an interdisciplinary way. The component of cognitive processes are pedagogical practices for the development of critical thinking. For Wang (2021), CLIL practice is aimed at strengthening cognitive processes because they are not a transfer of knowledge from the teacher to the student; it is to interpret and build the new information.

ztrk and akıroğlu (2021) propose that Culture in CLIL is a main axis because it enriches students through diverse opportunities, prepares them for life in an increasingly international society and seeks to transmit values of tolerance, respect for other cultures. Communication is the vehicular language that is used in the classroom in a social and academic way, the same that varies depending on the content that the teacher is going to teach. In an CLIL class, communication promotes greater interaction between students and less production by the teacher. Jalinus and Al (2021) reaffirm that in an CLIL class students realize that content and vehicular language are integrated when they finally produce the language, that is, they interact while learning the content.

 

Globalized thinking

 

Global communicative language

According to Patel (2015),the evolution of the English language from a little-known language of a small ethnic group to one of the most widespread international languages occurs rapidly over the course of the twentieth century and involved the transformation of English into the world's communication language. The assumption of the English language's status as a global language is an unprecedented phenomenon in the history of languages and cultures, and has significant consequences not only for the theory and practice of language teaching, but also for those with a linguistic and cultural heritage of the world. English, long before its transformation into a global means of overcoming linguistic and cultural barriers, was considered by some academics and politicians to be a dominant language that threatened the future of national languages and cultures. Is it true that the use of English as a global lingua franca in all areas of international communication and the cultural globalization of the world may lead to its replacement of other languages and cultures, especially the thousands of languages and cultures of the small peoples of the world? Or is the language of global communication becoming part of humanity's multiple identities in the era of globalization and the information society, without posing a threat to ethno-cultural identity?

On the other hand, for Astuti and Lammers (2017),the approach to language as a tool, used for communication purposes, coordination of joint actions and understanding of the world, allows to explain the difficulties of language policy without due consideration of the instrumental and functional properties of languages. However, some important issues related to the development, conservation and use of languages and cultures in the context of globalization are not fully explained, despite the increasing level and scope of linguistic research. In this sense, the concept is of special interest. According to experts, more than six thousand languages in the world represent a system of languages, connected to each other by multilingual speakers.

that in the global system of languages some languages, according to the principle of multilingualism, have a broader function, that is, to be a means of communication between speakers of regional languages. According to the language's ability to act as a means of communication between languages, it divides the global language system into four hierarchical groups: 1) peripheral languages, 2) central languages, 3) super central languages, and 4) hyper central languages. Peripheral languages are generally not used for communication between languages. This group includes most of the so-called minor languages, which are in danger of disappearing, because speakers have to use other languages in the communication process beyond their language groups. The core languages, whose number is around one hundred, are used as a means of communication by speakers of peripheral languages. Core languages are widely used within geographic areas and are spoken by approximately 95 percent of all mankind. Super central languages are more geographically widespread than core languages and are used as international languages for communication by speakers of the central language.

pigeonholes the super core language group includes 12 languages: English, Arabic, Spanish, Malay, Chinese, German, French, Portuguese, Russian, Swahili, Hindi and Japanese. Super central languages acquire the status of international languages as a result of their wide geographical distribution and the fact that they are unusually important languages; the number of speakers of super central languages exceeds 100 million. Hyper central languages are those global languages that are used for communication between speakers of super central languages. The phenomenon of global language appeared between the twentieth and twenty-first centuries as a result of the unprecedented growth of international contacts during the processes of integration and globalization. At present, the only hyper-central language is English.

the hierarchical distribution of languages in the global language system explains the difficulties of language policy in education, designed to support and develop multilingualism. According to experts indicate that the study of languages is mainly done in an upward direction, people usually prefer to learn a language that is at a higher level in the hierarchy. A process of increasing concentration, in which a small number of languages with the highest communicative value play a central role, is directed by the invisible hand of the market, that is, the objective mechanism of the market described by the Scottish economist Adam Smith in the eighteenth century in his book Research on the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations.

that the language is defined not only on the basis of the predominance of the language at the level of a geographical region or the whole world, according to the number of native speakers of the language, but also on the basis of the centrality of the language, which is the indicator of the language's ability to connect people who speak different languages, estimated by the number of multilingual people who speak the language as a second language. Commenting on the economic approach to languages is written: that languages can be considered as long-term investment projects, and the volume of investments affects the functional potential of the language at the individual level; learning a second language can be assimilated to the creation of capital; acquisition of symbolic and intellectual capital in this case.

in the hierarchy of the global language system, only the hyper central language, English, has the highest Q value because, although it surpasses Chinese in terms of the number of native speakers, English takes precedence not only over Chinese, but also over Chinese other languages in their centrality as a universal means of overcoming interlinguistic and intercultural barriers. Studying English, therefore, provides the greatest benefit, and that is why it is not surprising that preference is always given to the English language when choosing a second or foreign language in educational systems around the world.

Friginal et al., (2017) adds that super-core languages have a high Q value. Many of them are official and working languages of major international organizations. Thus, the official languages of the UN are six super central languages: English, Arabic, Spanish, Chinese, French and Russian. Swahili is one of the official languages of the African Union. Super central languages are widely included in the curricula of national education systems in the study of second and foreign languages. Higher education institutions offer courses in these languages, they are the languages that are used in the transmission of radio and television programs worldwide, and a large number of educational materials are developed for their learning.

 

Global thinking and its complexity

According to Mann and Walsh (2017),global thinking works on complexity and reductionism. The problem of the whole and the parts. It seeks to know the parts of the whole in a partial knowledge, and the whole is always greater than the sum of the parts. Knowledge is accessed through its parts. The real is divided into plots that are studied as units. The Renaissance divides philosophy into history and natural history. Nature is dissected by the various disciplines and advocates holistic thinking, in turn holistic comes from the whole, in a way, holism also reduces knowledge to a whole. As is well known, knowledge has parts that come together into a whole and that interact. It is about the interlocutions between the parties and everything that is the current global thinking in society.

In another aspect, Garca et al., (2018) argue that in culture, it is known that there are parts, individuals and the whole that is society. That is, to know the social it is necessary to know an element, the individual, and it is necessary to know how that element behaves in a given context. How an individual interacts with others in a situation. Knowing the behavior of the individual has three components that are given. For their individual character, as a set of individuals in relationship, and in the processes of adaptation that occur as a result of the flow of interaction. In systems theory, this adaptation is called system feedback and is what allows for adaptations of systems. Therefore, in the knowledge of the social, it is necessary to apply a translation procedure, on the one hand, to identify the lines of force of the flows that occur and at the same time it is necessary to interrogate the context in which they occur.

In the systems theory Rocha & Toledo (2015), they indicate that the different parts of that system work together. The complexity of the system is the degree of variation that the system can accommodate, that is, it is a degree of variability of each unit that acts, influencing the others, maintaining the general characteristics of the system. This is how it stays in balance. Therefore, a system implies unity and diversity. Unity is the system, and diversity is the different parts of this system, which act to influence this system, or which are placed on the sidelines, creating entropy. Complex thinking is easy to understand when thinking about the planet. There complex thinking can be applied by analyzing the small parts of the whole and the whole in context.

that this topic is given as a field of discussion between vitalism and reductionism feeding the discussions between the aura and the soul, between matter and chemistry. Today it is known that molecules communicate and reproduce. The universe acts, following its rules, which are different from those of living beings (complex beings). Life is not something that is a substance, but it is a process or quality of organization of molecules and proteins, where through their basic characteristics. The social system is a set of individuals who interact with each other. Interaction is the process of communication, which leads to the creation of languages that support communication processes. Culture is constituted as communication processes that give rise to forms of organization or states of societies. The State is a form of social organization that is also constituted through communication processes. The social system is also the goal of feedback. Education is a way of introducing feedback into the social system. Education can be defined as a process that aims to transmit a minimum set of knowledge to the maximum number of individuals so that they can act in society.

The educational elements, the contents, give conditions to act in the medium. That is, in complexity theory, everything is simultaneously more than the sum of the parts of the whole, and the whole is more than its parts. Systems are adjusted by their feedback. Feedback on a system can be positive or negative, the function of negative feedback is to repress deviations, acting to bring the system back to a state of equilibrium. On the other hand, positive feedback is called Crisis. The crisis is a possibility of transformation. For a given problem, a system stops working in its previous state loses balance and to continue functioning either eliminates the disturbance or moves to something more complex. In natural processes, a crisis usually leads to the elimination of the body (Pardo et al., 2022, p. 39).

In society, a crisis is usually the opportunity to give rise to something new, now the symptoms of crises are present in all systems. Sometimes they are just fragile flows that over time become powerful. From the tension between stability and adaptation it is possible to make a reading of the processes that affect the systems. The crisis, in the sense given by systems theory, is today understood differently, in different areas of knowledge. For example, in history, he says that after a crisis there is an evolution there has to be a change in stability for new forms to emerge and from this change of forms, there are always some who lose and others who gain depending on which side they stand on (Wang et al., 2021, p. 103).

In every system there is an organization where all the elements realize some capacity and have a self-organization. Each element has a certain capacity for autonomy. But in systems, the autonomy of the parts and the whole is limited by the environment in which the system is processed. All systems require, for example, external energy all beings need to forage for food, warm up, have access to water. Human beings need to be in communication with others, in systems there is an eco-organization that relates adaptive capacities with the necessary dependence on the environment (Rivera, 2022).

That is, the relationship between individual, nature and society implies a greater complexity than sociologists initially think, when they look for the general laws of society. Today it makes no sense not only to fragment nature and culture, but also to fragment culture and psyche (Villadiego et al., 2020, p. 89). This is the relationship that each individual has with his biological and social part, as well as the interaction between society in context, through the communication processes in their different dimensions. For complex thinking, each part of unity has the whole and the whole is everywhere in every part each part of the whole communicates in different ways. Complex thinking is represented as a hologram of being. To answer the question of the global and the local, in complex thinking it is verified that the global is in the local and in the local there is also the global.

Language and globalization

The term globalization designates a set of integration processes in the socioeconomic and communicational fields that emerged at the end of the twentieth century. Some experts see in globalization the inevitable effect of the global socio-economic context, which leads to the overcoming of traditional cultures; others assign a decisive role to the choices of international economic and political powers aimed at the liberalization of capital movements and the labor market. It also highlights both the identity crisis and the uncertainty in social relations thatdetermines (Falcones & Castilla, 2020, p.233).

One of the effects of globalization is deterritorialization, so certain groups share transnational and universal cultural traits, thought patterns, and behavior. More generally, globalization triggers phenomena of deculturization and uprooting under the pressure of Western cultural hegemony, including the imposition of social relations based on market mechanisms. The weakening of local cultures creates the conditions for homogenization without integration, characterized by strong socioeconomic and cultural differences, leading to mass migrations towards valuable citizenships. The processes of political and economic integration, the formation of multicultural and multilingual societies and the affirmation of a new global consciousness determine important changes in culture and thought in a world in which distances and differences tend to be less and less perceptible (Goodwin, 2020, p.15-17).

For Bornstein et al., (2020),regarding language, many authors highlight the process of reducing the number of languages spoken, of homologation of the way of using the language and of the rules of linguistic communication; Western broadcasting systems tend to impose symbolic universes on the rest of the world. An effect of the phenomena of deterritorialization is the spread and use of American English, which is consolidated as a global language. Safeguarding primary collective interests, such as the cultural and linguistic diversity of each country or social group, therefore requires solutions capable of protecting particular identities. In this perspective, the contents of communication, information and knowledge are decisive, also in relation to the social function of language. After all, among the features that distinguish the human being, language is undoubtedly the one that expresses the most intimate characteristics of the speaker, representing an element of social identity and realizing a fundamental faculty of the mind. Thanks to language, you have a common identity, which founds any social group; it is no coincidence that the linguistic history of a community makes it possible to investigate its social and cultural life. The spread of languages is uneven, so some languages link entire continents while others are limited to unique areas and are used by a small number of speakers.

of the thousands of living languages in the world, only ten are widely spoken and no more than fifty are spoken by at least five million people. As for the ten most widespread languages, the estimates of the World Almanac 2005 attribute to Mandarin Chinese the thousands of living languages in the world, only ten are widely spoken and no more than fifty are spoken by at least five million people, English 514 million, Hindustani 496 million, Spanish 425 million, Russian 275 million, Arab 256 million, Bengali 215 million, Portuguese 194 million, Malay-Indonesian 176 million and French 129 million. The different diffusion of languages also responds to processes of planning and linguistic normalization functional to social reality and contemporary economic relations, as is the case of the great vehicular languages. In the process of globalization, language has a market value, as evidenced by the predominance of English, whose teaching and editorial use responds to economic interests. The relationship between global language and local languages evokes the process of formation of national languages between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. In this process, the interests of economic power and the organizational conditions of the new national societies are decisive, which tend to reduce the conditions of use of linguistic systems that are not functional to the new needs of a much more extensive and integral communication.

The supremacy of the English language in the language of economics, science and social relations in a broad sense is made explicit in indicators of socio-cultural status such as human development and quality of life index that combines GDP with the literacy and education levels of the adult population and sees English-speaking countries with the highest scores. Requests for the protection of linguistic rights, as in the case of the European linguistic question, have an impact on one of the main mechanisms for the organization of society, as they directly add to the compatibility of linguistic and cultural differences with the needs of economic and political powers. In addition, the spread of English creates inequality in the need for both publication and bilingual communication (Ariantini et al., 2021, p.104).

In the case of Europe, for example, there is a great deal of discussion on the question of the linguistic babel and the official languages of the European Union. In fact, the various languages spoken in Europe constitute a common heritage of all the peoples who speak them; recognizing the importance means promoting linguistic rights as part of the freedom rights of European citizens. On a deeper level, it means taking into account the importance of linguistic diversity as an expression of the mechanisms that underlie the functioning of language in the minds of human beings. Educational institutions in European countries face the task of promoting or implementing forms of multilingualism that not only guarantee the richness of the heritage of today's languages, but also to make it usable by a greater number of citizens Wang, 2021, p. 81).

For Garzn (2021),the link between language and information technologies, and the fact that the latter are mostly expressed in English, as an intermediary in communication between different linguistic environments, led to the formation of neologisms under the direct influence of the Anglo-American of the different languages, this phenomenon not only has implications in language policy, rather, it affects the internal dynamics of the languages themselves as an effect of the need to express material conditions and social modifications. leading to the formation of neologisms under the direct influence of Anglo-American in the lexicon of different languages.

that this phenomenon not only has implications in linguistic policy, but also affects the internal dynamics of the languages themselves as an effect of the need to express material conditions and social modifications giving rise to the formation of neologisms under the direct influence of the Anglo-American in the lexicon of different languages. This phenomenon not only has implications for language policy, but also affects the internal dynamics of languages themselves as an effect of the need to express material conditions and social modifications.

that globalization leads to standardization not only through the substitution of one language for another and the acquisition of loans, but also in the ways of speaking, in prosody, as well as in the pragmatic modalities of communicative interaction, in the abandonment of traditional records, etc. It also follows the path of promoting an artificial language capable of countering the cultural and political dominance of the United States. The various attempts to coin a new European international language have no real application, also because of the banal simplicity of the structure of this language and the absence of general rules, as in the case of basic English. Some recent proposals consist of simplified and situational uses, a form of English that uses the most common basic words and constructions, such as an amalgam of different languages according to the communicative context. In fact, globalized linguistic canons can replace local ones by inhibiting diversity. In particular, new technologies and the Internet contribute to the creation of new textual genres with analogies with traditional genres, but with original characteristics, such as, in particular, texts and documents in digital format, new tools for distance learning and new forms of communication. By contrast, globalization does not automatically cancel out linguistic and cultural differences.

that on the one hand, there is a strong interest in local cultures and languages, and the global market, in particular, values the local linguistic cultural heritage for tourism purposes and, in any case, for profit. On the other hand, in conjunction with the processes of globalization, ultranationalisms and religious fundamentalisms arise that oppose global languages. An important consequence of the defense and valorization of linguistic diversity is that such attitudes favor an education in tolerance. In fact, multicultural societies feed multilingualism and the phenomena of language change and linguistic miscegenation linked to the knowledge of multiple languages by speakers and the complexity and variety of communicative interactions; they also provoke the formation of learning languages. This determines a rich picture of linguistic variation that reflects the cognitive potential of the human being. The crushing towards global uniformity also coexists with the revaluation of local realities.

 

The myth of linguistic globalization

In many of the discussions on the phenomenon of globalization, together with economic-financial considerations, a presumed homologation of a global dimension is usually evoked, as proof of which the process of concentration of the cultural and information industry is often cited. Since the coining of the famous expression global village, the normative or realistic character of such scenarios is unclear: in fact, it is difficult to understand whether these discussions describe a state of affairs, future predictions or the formulation of an optimal planetarium model of communication (Garzn, 2021, p. 102).

Cultural globalization, according to experts, is also legitimate to foresee the birth of a language common to all humanity, a role for which English is a candidate. The existence of a global language is not enough to erase the differences between the communities of the five continents, since, at least theoretically, different cultures can use the same language. However, it has an undoubted symbolic weight: if the departure from the Garden of Eden coincides in Genesis with the first linguistic differentiation between the three sons of Adam, the birth of a global language has the taste of a return to the historical meta condition of the earthly paradise (Chen et al., 2021, p.201).

In fact, there is too much evidence of the very strong ideological value of linguistic diversity as an element of identification of communities. It can be said, therefore, that linguistic diversity is bound to end? This judgment only makes sense if it refers to a time as distant as any forecast, by attributing some regulatory role to linguistic globalization: in fact, if politics assumes this scenario as a regulator of its preferences for example, it distinguishes between favorable and opposed to the formation of a world language run the risk of not realizing one of the greatest challenges of contemporaneity, constituted by the communication between great linguistic-cultural universes profoundly different from each other. It is difficult to bring evidence to support any argument in this discussion. So, he limits himself to doing an operation that is little more than a game (Horbatiuk et al., 2021, p. 73).

it compares, and discusses, some data from the two main observatories on the worldwide spread of languages, merely indicative figures: in fact, it is not easy to make an approximate count of the speakers of a language given the effusiveness of some concepts, such as what does a language mean? It is clear that questions of this kind can only be answered by resorting to extralinguistic arguments, for example, by asking speakers about their perception: but this perception is destined to change over time, as Yugoslav history shows. Experts indicate that 6809 languages are spoken in the contemporary world. Many of these actually have only a few thousand, if not hundreds, speakers and much of humanity is concentrated in large languages that have a national or supranational dimension. Thus, "Linguasphere" lists eighty-three "macrolanguages". However, even if you consider languages with at least sixty million speakers, therefore, one hundredth of the total world population, follows "Linguasphere" still comes to a fairly high count of twenty-five varieties: Arabic, Bengali, Mandarin Chinese, Wu Chinese, Chinese yue, Korean, Indonesian, English, Italian, French, Japanese, Javanese, Hindi-Urdu, Marathi, Panjabi, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Swahili, Tamil, German, Turkish, Ukrainian.

However, it is considered the largest varieties, those that exceed 200 million speakers, and that have a good vehicular diffusion, six languages are selected. English occupies a relevant place in a hypothetical classification; according to the different computations the third, second or first place. However, it is believed that at least six languages are destined to have a role of great importance in the century, if not beyond, as a reference variety of large regions of the world.

 

Learning multilingualism

Multilingualism - a natural phenomenon in the globalized world

In all parts of the world, bilingualism or multilingualism is a fairly natural phenomenon. In everyday life they meet people everywhere who speak other languages to each other and who have learned other languages or even come from families in which two or more languages are spoken. Bilingualism is the rule - monolingualism is the exception This catchy formula, which dominates debates on language policy for a long time, increasingly reflects the linguistic reality in all regions of the world. However, multilingualism is not just a phenomenon that relates to individuals. Around the world there are political entities that call themselves multilingual. Interesting examples in Europe are Belgium, Luxembourg and Spain(Hu & Gao, 2021, p. 29).

Today several languages are spoken on equal terms: in Belgium French, Flemish and German, in Luxembourg German and French, in Spain Basque, Spanish and Catalan. The languages mentioned are official languages in all three countries: laws, decrees and other official documents must be available in all languages of the respective country. However, this does not mean that all citizens of Belgium, Luxembourg or Spain are fluent in all the languages of the country; they may well be monolingual, and in many cases they are. Other forms of this type of multilingualism can be expressed by the pair of terms majority language versus minority language; These early reflections on multilingualism clearly showthat this concept is more complex than it seems at first glance (Huang et al., 2021, p.56).

Therefore, multilingualism refers to at least two different phenomena: individual multilingualism, which is an individual's ability to master more than one language, and social multilingualism, which refers to regions and states where more than one language is spoken. Despite their differences, the two forms of multilingualism have one underlying thing in common: multilingualism is always found where two or more languages are in contact with each other.

 

Individual multilingualism

There is a uniform definition for different types of individual multilingualism. However, since the investigation of individual multilingualism in the early twentieth century there have been many attempts to define it. At first, these were quite normative: because they require a speaker who is described as bilingual to have an equally good command of both languages, which is later called "balanced multilingualism" or balanced, having native proficiency in both languages, it is added that it is difficult to distinguish between a good speaker and a bilingual speaker. These have very general and quite descriptive definitions. The alternating use of two languages is more vaguely called bilingualism. However, using such a definition, it can be said that almost any speaker, even if they only know a few words of a foreign language, is bilingual (Jalinus & Al, 2021, p.91).

On the other hand, Hu & Gao (2021) indicate that, from the current perspective, descriptive and normative definitions of multilingualism are rightly accused of not taking into account all the richness of characteristics that characterize bilingual speakers. They only use language proficiency as a criterion for defining multilingualism. However, language proficiency is a gradual measure that makes it difficult to draw a clear line between a second language student and a bilingual speaker. In addition, monolingual speakers have different competencies for individual areas of competence. For example, a monolingual speaker may be very proficient in a colloquial or even dialectal register, but have little command of the standard language. A young person may be very proficient in youth language or group language, while having little articulation in standard language.

Other speakers may be very skilled at listening and speaking, but they can barely read and write. A high level of competence in individual areas or in all language competences, as well as in a second language is certainly a characteristic of individual multilingualism, but it is not the only one. Such considerations speak to bilingualism and how they highlight more characteristics that make up multilingualism. In the literature, two different tendencies can be identified to capture the term bilingualism or multilingualism. On the one hand, proposals for definitions are made that show an increasing degree of elaboration, on the other hand, an attempt is made to define the conceptual field using categories and dimensions (Garzn, 2021).

Similarly, to word field theory, where the meaning of words and concepts is described by oppositions of characteristics due to the complexity of the definition, the latter method is certainly more suitable than the former, which leads to very complex definitions. Definitions that explore the different dimensions of multilingualism are initially identified in eight dimensions by which bilingual speakers can differentiate themselves from each other. These dimensions are further differentiated in the right-hand column in order to more clearly separate bilingual speakers from each other.

Social multilingualism

Social multilingualism is described as that form of multilingualism that refers to social groups, regions and states in which more than one language is spoken. While individual multilingualism depends on the individual and his or her linguistic behavior, social multilingualism tends to be more determined by social factors that determine behavior. An example should illustrate what has been said. One of the smallest states in the European Union, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is a multilingual country. French and German are the official languages spoken because of the school system there. A third language, Letzeburgische, is also used by all speakers as a colloquial language. Luxembourgers are therefore largely trilingual (Chen et al., 2021).

Those interested in the individual multilingualism of speakers turn to the individual use of all three languages: whether competence in all three languages is balanced or what cognitive organization is like. Social multilingualism is more interested in investigating when multilingual speakers in a social group use one language or another. For example, it is observed that each of the three languages is spoken in different areas. French and German are linguistic variants that are mainly used in formal contexts; French is the language of the courts and literature. German is used together with French in the written press. Both languages are also the languages of television, so broadcasters broadcast programs in German and French, but can be received everywhere in both languages (Chen et al., 2021).

Chen et al., (2021) indicate that Letzeburgish is the language of everyday life and is used when shopping or in the pub; however, it is usually not written. In Luxembourg, it can now be observed that moving from one social situation to another causes a change of language socially determined and respected by all. In the research of individual multilingualism this is known as code change, in social multilingualism as diglossia. A dignified situation is therefore a social situation in which the use of languages in a multilingual linguistic community is determined by social conventions. In addition to Luxembourg, there are other examples of diglossia, such as Eastern Switzerland, where the change between High German and a variant of Swiss German is determined by the social situation.

In Norway and Greece there are two linguistic variants that are socially chosen by the speakers. The study addresses the question of what forms of social multilingualism exist and should be attempted to establish in a classification table similar to individual multilingualism, which allows differentiating important forms of social multilingualism. A comparison of countries such as Luxembourg, Canada and Switzerland, on the one hand, and Germany, Italy and France, on the other, shows that social multilingualism takes different forms. The starting point for the following considerations should be the nation state, no matter how problematic such political structures may be. It is believed that it is better to ask where multilingualism exists within political entities than to start with the linguistic community and ask what nation states it is in, because it is the very existence of states that creates the phenomenon of multilingualism only makes it a social phenomenon. Taking states as a starting point for an analysis of social multilingualism, different attitudes towards the languages spoken in the territories can be seen in them(Horbatiuk et al., 2021, p. 67).

States that officially and equally recognize all languages spoken in their territories recognize minority languages, grant special rights to their speakers, and declare them official languages to be protected. There are also states that accept that minority languages are spoken in their territories along with the national language, but do not grant speakers of these languages any special status. Other states allow a completely different language to be spoken in their linguistically heterogeneous territory, and only grant it the status of a second official language for political reasons. States in which multiple minority languages are spoken often have different attitudes towards individual languages, so they can be assigned to different groups.

 

Multilingual approaches to teaching and learning

Multilingualism is an advantage that shows the ability to speak multiple languages helps keep the brain healthy as you age, but it also has many benefits for children as it provides an academic advantage and improves their job prospects once they finish school. In addition, multilingualism allows access to various cultures and improves the understanding of cultures. Multilingual classrooms are an increasingly common phenomenon around the world, as a result of rapidly increasing mobility and global migration. Within these classes, students may come from different linguistic and cultural backgrounds, speak one language at home and another at school, or learn the language of instruction as an additional language (Jalinus & Al, 2021, p. 61).

International agencies such as UNICEF, UNESCO and the European Commission claim that multilingual education can play an important role in the participation of students from diverse backgrounds. In addition to fostering your academic success, classes that value bilingualism can foster the positive identities associated with your home culture. This position is supported by the notion of language as a theorized resource, which advocates the use of languages spoken at home by students as resources for learning and teaching. In practice, according to this approach to language, teachers should use the languages students speak at home as a tool for reflection and communication, along with simultaneous learning and development of skills in the language of instruction (Jalinus & Al, 2021, p. 67-68).

The use of multilingual approaches analyzes the growing body of research showing that preventing students from using the language they speak at home during their English lessons hinders their learning and denies them basic language rights, but also that, because of this, teachers are missing out on valuable opportunities to leverage their students' knowledge and experience as didactic resources. This set of activities is developed as a result of the British Council's conscious decision to promote multilingual methods in the teaching of English worldwide. Activities are designed to take into account students' home languages and cultures when teaching English as an additional or foreign language, or the use of English as a medium of instruction in multilingual classes. The activities are based on research-based pedagogical principles, which are briefly presented below (Banegas & Del Pozo, 2022, p. 44).

However, it is still English that overwhelmingly predominates in many classrooms around the world, where students read, write, listen and speak only in English. Despite the breadth of research that points to the importance and benefits of integrating multilingual pedagogies into classroom practice, Fortunately, in recent years, publications, congresses and professional development materials allow us to advance in the reflection on the teaching vector and the conceptions of teaching, going against the current of the idea of the exclusive use of the official/national language.

 

Activities that promote intercultural competence

There are a variety of activities that promote intercultural competence. Among the activities that were a great experience for the study group are:

 

         Professions and / or trades: They help to create a critical cultural awareness in students according to learning levels, as they must analyze similarities between professions and / or contemporary trades in different countries, and the socioeconomic reality. At an advanced level of learning, it leads them to investigate the new professions and skills demanded by the technological revolution, profiles of the most sought-after professionals worldwide, and required competencies (Jalinus & Al, 2021).

         National and international celebrations: These are activities of vast cultural and social richness that help students develop critical thinking and intercultural awareness (Huang et al., 2021).

         My identity and my information: Although its basic information, it constitutes a wealth of information that helps the student to reflect and enrich himself academically and socially. At a basic level, personal information is investigated, such as filling out a registration application, name history; while at the average level of knowledge you can research on requirements in local and international universities, number of students, university ranking and academic opportunities (Hu & Gao, 2021).

Suggestions for promoting methodological orientation and interculturality

According to the Ministry of Education (2018), they can be evaluated according to the following activities:

         Listen to a song from another country and find the similarities with a song from Ecuador. That is, similarities in content, from the point of view of the literary, social and cultural genre.

         Write essays about an interdisciplinary experience. That is, to expose their point of view, respecting that of the companions.

         Find recipes from other cultures and regions and share them with the class. In this way students are motivated to socialize, enrich themselves with practical and real content, practice tolerance and respect.

         Read legends from different regions of Ecuador and explain through an outline the notable similarities and differences.

         Read a myth from another region and/or culture and share a similar experience.

         Reflect on the differences that exist between people from other countries and regions.

         Research types of education from other cultures, incorporate them into an interactive blog, and present them to the class.

         Respond sensitively and responsibly to the opinion of a classmate, on a text read in class.

         Watch a video about people living in Ecuador and any other country, taking notes of cultural practices to encourage group discussion.

         Share an interdisciplinary experience (such as traveling, interacting with someone from another country, trying a new food or recipe) in work groups or sharing with colleagues.

         Watch a video or read a text about the practices of different cultures and interact in working groups on similarities and differences.

The aforementioned activities contribute to the teaching-learning of the English language under the CLIL approach and promote in the student a globalized thinking.

 

Conclusion

By circumscribing as part of the practices of the language the traditions, celebrations and customs, etc. derived from different cultures, intercultural learning occurs: achieving several objectives, such as knowing majestic and incredible treasures around the world, as well as forming globalized citizens who value their own festivities, traditions and typical foods, etc. In other words, to achieve meaningful learning in students by enriching them in values and fostering intercultural respect. That is, it is important as teacher trainers of globalized citizens of the 21st century, to cultivate in them an international vision and change their perspectives in the future, to appreciate other cultures and countries and to be sensitive and humanistic to changes. They are global citizens of the twenty-first century, a century who are strongly committed to improving and improving a global society that does not promote borders between countries. In this way, CLIL represents an innovative approach that seeks to change the teaching-learning of languages.

 

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